Email How To¶
This lesson will take you through setting up Postfix on your instance. Email is first killer app of the Internet. Sending and receiving email on your own domain is an important business and marketing tool. You don’t have to install your own MTA to have email on a custom domain, but you should know how.
AWS does not allow outgoing mail!
There are multiple mail agents that you can use in Ubuntu. Each with it’s pros and cons. The default MTA is Postfix. Here’s Ubuntu’s official Postfix documentation:
Setup DNS Records¶
The DNS system is used to figure out who handles mail for a given domain. You may have noticed that when you send email to your friends with a Gmail account you send the mail to “firstname.lastname@example.org”. The name “gmail.com” does not name a machine but a domain. The MTA must find out using a special DNS query:
$ dig mx gmail.com ; <<>> DiG 9.10.3-P4-Ubuntu <<>> mx gmail.com ;; global options: +cmd ;; Got answer: ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 6887 ;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 5, AUTHORITY: 13, ADDITIONAL: 1 ;; OPT PSEUDOSECTION: ; EDNS: version: 0, flags:; udp: 4096 ;; QUESTION SECTION: ;gmail.com. IN MX ;; ANSWER SECTION: gmail.com. 3599 IN MX 20 alt2.gmail-smtp-in.l.google.com. gmail.com. 3599 IN MX 10 alt1.gmail-smtp-in.l.google.com. gmail.com. 3599 IN MX 30 alt3.gmail-smtp-in.l.google.com. gmail.com. 3599 IN MX 5 gmail-smtp-in.l.google.com. gmail.com. 3599 IN MX 40 alt4.gmail-smtp-in.l.google.com. ;; Query time: 65 msec ;; SERVER: 10.192.0.3#53(10.192.0.3) ;; WHEN: Thu Oct 31 08:18:17 PDT 2019 ;; MSG SIZE rcvd: 372
The answer contains a prioritized list of the servers that handle mail for gmail.com. Servers are supposed to pick the lowest number first. In order to handle mail you must modify your DNS records to contain a mail server. Here’s what I did to my zone file to add support for a mail server:
@ IN MX 10 www @ IN TXT "v=spf1 ip6:<my-ipv6>/128 ip:<my-ipv4>/32 -all"
The first entry is the MX or mail server record. That contains the name of my domain (abbreviated @) and the name of the mail server (which, since you only have one server is shared with
www). I’ve added an SPF record stating that I can send email from my instances address and that’s it! This is unfortunately redundant because AWS instances are not allowed to send email.
Checking Your DNS Records¶
Build your container locally to make sure your DNS records work before publishing them to your AWS instance. Depending on what port you choose for testing purposes you’ll do a dig like this:
$ dig MX <yourdomain>.cis.cabrillo.edu @localhost -p <localport>
When you’re satisfied that it’s working tag and push your container, then run it on your AWS instance. Check to make sure that other hosts on the Internet can find your mail server. Use dig for that:
$ dig MX <yourdomain>.cis.cabrillo.edu
You should see an answer with the proper email address. Also, check your SPF record:
$ dig TXT <yourdomain>.cis.cabrillo.edu
Setting up postfix itself is quite easy. You must first install it:
$ sudo apt install postfix
The installation will trigger a menu. Make the following choices:
System name: Your domain name. (e.g. mike.cis.cabrillo.edu)
If you want to get the menu again you can run the following command:
$ dpkg-reconfigure postfix
The menu from
dpkg-reconfigure has more options. Leave them at their defaults.
Checking Your Mail Logs¶
Will contain the record of any failed attempts to deliver email. That’s a very useful place to look for problems.
Allowing Inbound Mail Connections¶
The firewall on your instance doesn’t allow incoming mail. To do that you’ll need to open port 25 (or SMTP). The command to do that is:
$ sudo ufw allow smtp
Don’t forget to update your AWS security group if necessary.
You can check to be sure that it’s working using telnet from Opus or Tux
opus$ telnet <instance-ip-address> 25