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Lesson 05: Networking

Presentation slides are here.

Objectives
  • Understand the structure of the OSI model and the services performed by each layer.
  • Understand what happens when Windows 7 detects a network interface adapter in a computer.
  • Use the Network and Sharing Center.
  • Manage Network Connections.
  • Use TCP/IP Tools.
Vocabulary

classless inter-domain routing (CIDR) 
A method of dividing a network IP address into subnets by designating some number of its host bits as network bits. CIDR differs from traditional classful addressing by allowing the division between the network identifier and the host identifier to fall anywhere in an IPv4 address; it does not have to fall on one of the eight-bit boundaries.

connectionless protocol 
A communication protocol used in data networking that does not require the establishment of a connection before it can transfer data. Systems simply transmit their packets to the destination, without knowing if the destination system is ready to accept data, or if it even exists. Connectionless protocols do not guarantee delivery of their data, but they operate with a very low overhead that conserves network bandwidth.

connection-oriented protocol 
A communication protocol used in data networking in which two communicating systems establish a connection before they transmit any data. Once the connection is established, the computers exchange packets with complex headers designed to provide error detection and correction. A connection-oriented protocol ensures bit-perfect data transmissions, but at the price of greatly increased overhead.

data encapsulation 
The process by which networking protocols add headers and sometimes footers to an existing data structure to provide it with addressing information and other function-specific values. 

datagram 
A data structure generated by a network layer protocol such as Internet Protocol, consisting of transport layer data with a header containing an IP address and other communications information.

8P8C connector 
The technical term for a type of modular cable connector used on data networks constructed with unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cabling.

firewall 
A software routine that acts as a virtual barrier between a computer and the network to which it is attached. A firewall is essentially a filter that enables certain types of incoming and outgoing traffic to pass through, while blocking other types.

frame 
A data structure generated by a data link layer protocol such as IEEE 802.3, consisting of network layer data with a header and a footer containing a MAC address and other communications information.

Internet Protocol (IP) 
A network layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite that provides end-to-end addressing and other communication services.

IP (Internet Protocol) address 
A unique 32-bit numeric address used as an identifier for a device, such as a computer, on a TCP/IP network.

Link Local Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR) 
A name resolution protocol used by IPv6 computers with link-local addresses that do not have access to a Domain Name System (DNS) server.

media access control (MAC) address 
A six-byte hexadecimal sequence, hard-coded into each network interface adapter by the manufacturer, used by data link layer protocols to uniquely identify a computer on a local area network. 

network address translation (NAT) 
A type of routing protocol that enables multiple computers on a private network to share one public IP address.

OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) reference model 
A theoretical teaching and design aid that splits the data networking process into seven distinct layers, each of which provides specific functions.

packet-switching network 
A type of communications network in which a sending system splits data into discrete units called packets, which it transmits individually to the destination system. The destination system then reassembles the packets back into the original data stream. 

port 
In TCP/IP networking, a code that identifies a particular application running on a computer, used to forward incoming traffic to the proper destination process. 

protocols 
A collection of communication rules that enable computers to communicate with each other.

router 
A device that connects one network to another.

socket 
The combination of an IP address and a port number, expressed using the format xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:yyyy.

stateless address autoconfiguration 
An IPv6 address assignment technique that enables computers to configure their own addresses after transmitting router solicitation multicasts to the routers on the network and receiving router advertisement messages in return. 

subnet mask 
In TCP/IP networking, a 32-bit value that specifies which bits of an IP address form the network identifier and which bits form the host identifier.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 
A connection-oriented transport layer protocol that provides services such as guaranteed delivery and error protection for data transmissions that must be bit perfect. 

unshielded twisted pair (UTP) 
A type of cable consisting of a number of wire pairs, each individually twisted and all enclosed in a sheath. UTP cable is often used for voice and data communications. 
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