Lesson 5 Commands¶
This page has the commands for Lesson 5. They are:
||Create a file or update a file's timestamp.|
||Make a directory|
||Copy a file or files|
||Move or rename files and directories|
||Remove a directory|
||Remove a file or directory|
||Make a symbolic link|
||Visually list a directory tree|
Making and Removing Directories¶
mkdir command simply creates a directory and the
rmdir command removes one. The
mkdir command only creates a directory if it doesn’t exist and the
rmdir command only removes one if it’s empty.
Copying and Moving Files and Directories¶
mv command copy and move files. They’re essential commands that take a little getting used to because they do different things in different situations. The first thing to know is that both commands take at least two arguments, the source and destination in order. For example:
$ cp from_this_file to_this_file $ mv from_this_file to_this_file
It’s essential that you remember the oder: from then to.
Copy or Move Single File¶
A single file copy and move has two arguments:
$ cp letter letter.bak
Moving a single file is the same thing as renaming the file.
$ mv letter.bak letter.backup
Copying or Moving Multiple Files¶
If you want to copy or move multiple files you can have more sources and the last argument, the destination, must be a directory. Try this:
$ mkdir shapes fruits $ touch square triangle tomato orange # Copy shapes $ cp square triangle shapes
Notice there are now two copies of the shapes files. Now try moving:
$ mv tomato orange fruits
Copying and Moving Directories¶
Moving or renaming a directory is as simple as a file:
$ mv shapes polygons
Copying a directory requires the
-r flag to tell
cp that you want to recurse through a directory structure.
$ cp fruits foods cp: -r not specified; omitting directory 'fruits' $ cp -r fruits foods
You can remove files with
rm, which takes multiple arguments if you want to remove multiple files.
rm square triangle
rm doesn’t work on directories:
$ rm polygons/ rm: cannot remove 'polygons/': Is a directory
You should remove a directory using
$ rmdir polygons rmdir: failed to remove 'polygons': Directory not empty $ rm polygons/* $ rmdir polygons
rm command has the nulcear option. The
-r flag makes
rm recursive, meaning it will delete everything in the directory and all subdirectories. The
-f flags says force which makes
rm work without asking any “are you sure?” questions.
rm -rf menu