# Using Commands¶

In this lesson you’ll learn the basics of the shell, how commands are processed and how they interact with you and Linux. Afterward you should be able to:

• Describe the difference between the terminal and the shell

• Name the steps the shell uses to process commands

• List the contents of the current directory

• Describe what a file is and how to view its contents

• Get help using the manual

Here are the commands you will learn in this lesson.

Command Action
echo Write something to the screen
banner Make a big banner (for fun)
ls List the contents of the current directory
tree Show the structure of the current directory
cat View the contents of a file
file View the type of a file
type Show the location of a command
bc A command line calculator.

## The Terminal and the Shell¶

The terminal is the program you use on your computer to view the command line. The terminal is software that takes the place of the old-school terminal hardware like the thing pictured below:

When the terminal is a program it’s called a terminal emulator but since it’s been so long since anyone has seen a real terminal everyone just says terminal. The shell is the program that shows you the prompt and accepts commands. The shell runs on the remote side of a network connection. When you use the ssh command to access another computer the terminal runs on your computer and the shell is started by ssh after you enter your login credentials.

## How Commands are Processed¶

Commands are executed in stages. Understanding the stages is important to understanding error messages that appear when you make a mistake typing a command.

Step Title Description
1 Prompt Print the prompt and wait for the user to type a command and the Enter key
2 Parse Parsing is the process of turing the command you typed to a plan for action. During the parsing phase the shell breaks the line into a command and arguments. The shell also processes special characters like the wildcard * character and shell variables.
3 Search Once the command name is determined the shell searches for the command.
4 Execute When the command is found the shell exectues the command.
5 Nap While the command is running the shell goes to sleep and waits for the command to finish.
6 Repeat Go back to step 1!

The most common mistakes are making a typo in a command or trying to execute a command that doesn’t exist. Here’s what the shell tells you when the search for a command fails:

simben90@opus3:~$bogus bogus: command not found  Remember the words command not found. They tell you that there’s a problem with the command you entered. The message comes from step 3 when the search fails. simben90@opus3:~$ cat nosuchfile
cat: nosuchfile: No such file or directory


In the example above cat failed to find the file. Here’s another example of an error from cat:

simben90@opus3:~$cat -x cat: invalid option -- 'x' Try 'cat --help' for more information.  The error messages from the last two examples come from cat itself during the step 4, Execution. When an error comes from a command the error message depends on the authors of the command. There are too many errors to list or know. ## echo and banner: The shell talks back¶ The echo and banner commands repeat their arguments. The echo command is useful when you want a shell program to print something (we’ll talk about shell programming near the end of the semester). The banner program turns its arguments into a big-size banner. Forms of the command: Command Form Description echo [message...] Repeat the words on the command line. banner [message...] Make a banner using the words on the command line. Here’s a demo: ## Files and Directories¶ Files are the way that computers store data permanently. On graphical desktops files are organized into folders, on Unix the proper term is directory. The ls command lists the contents of the current directory. I’ll explain the current directory later. You should know these forms of the command: Command Form Description ls -l List the contents of the current directory ls <file|directory> List a single file or directory ls -l Long listing (one per line) with extra information ls -a List all files (including hidden files) tree Show the directory tree Here’s a demonstration of ls. Notice the ls command uses a switch. Try running both commands on your own: $ ls
\$ ls -l


The -l switch means long listing. In long form the ls command prints one file per line with a bunch of extra information that we’ll talk about in the next lesson. The ls command color codes its output. Directories are colored blue in the example above.

Directories contain both files and other directories. The tree commands shows the structure of the current directory.

Run the tree command and look at the output. You should see output very similar to mine.

## Examining Files¶

The cat command prints the contents of a file to the screen.

Command Form Description
cat Repeat what you type until you type Ctrl-d
cat <filename> Write the contents of the file to the screen.

Here’s an example of using cat:

The mission file in your home directory contains the mission of Cabrillo college. Files can contain different types of data. The file command examines the file and tells you what type of data it contains. Here’s how to use the file command:

Notice that using the * as an argument shows the type of all files in the directory. The * is known as the wildcard.

Not all files can be printed with cat only text files can be. Look at the output above and find the file listed as data. What happens when you use cat on that file?

## Where Do Commands Come From?¶

The type command gives you information on files. The type command takes one argument, the name of a command.

Command Form Description
type Show information about the command

See what happens when you run type on ths commands from this lecture:

Run the type command on each of the commands you’ve learned so far.