# Extra Credit Lab: Pathnames¶

## Objectives¶

This lab will give you additional practice using relative an absolute pathnames as arguments on various Linux commands.

## Procedure¶

There is a tarball named dogs.tar in the /home/cis90/depot directory. Copy this file to your home directory and extract the files using:

$cd$ cp ../depot/dogs.tar .
$tar -xvf dogs.tar  You should now have a new dogs directory. Use the tree command to verify you have unpacked the files successfully: $ tree dogs
dogs
├── England
│   ├── Austen
│   │   ├── author
│   │   ├── Persuasion
│   │   └── Sensibility
│   └── Shakespeare
│       ├── author
│       ├── Caesar
│       ├── Hamlet
│       └── Romeo
├── France
│   └── Verne
│       ├── author
│       ├── Island
│       └── Moon
├── Germany
│   ├── Goethe
│   │   ├── author
│   │   ├── Faust
│   │   └── Lament
│   └── Kafka
│       ├── author
│       └── Trial
├── Greece
│   ├── Aesop
│   │   ├── Ass
│   │   ├── author
│   │   ├── Fox
│   └── Plato
│       ├── Apology
│       ├── author
│       └── Phaedo
├── Italy
│   └── Machiavelli
│       ├── author
│       └── War
├── Russia
│   └── Tolstoy
│       ├── Anna
│       ├── author
├── Spain
│   └── Cervantes
│       ├── author
│       └── Quixote
├── Ukraine
│   └── Chekhov
│       ├── Art
│       ├── author
│       ├── Boys
│       ├── Dependents
│       └── Wife
└── USA
├── Alcott
│   ├── author
│   ├── Boys
│   ├── Rose
│   └── Women
├── Burroughs
│   ├── author
│   ├── Mars
│   ├── Oakdale
│   └── Tarzan
├── Dickinson
│   ├── author
│   ├── Home
│   └── Sea
└── Twain
├── author
├── Italian
├── Race
└── Tale

24 directories, 51 files


This is a collection of literature excerpts that mention dogs in one way or another. Notice that the dogs directory contains directories named after countries. Each country directory had directories named after authors. Each author directory has files containing works or excerpts from that author. Each author directory also has a file named author, containing the name, birth year, death year, and country for that author.

Create a file named labx2. For each step in the lab you will construct a command and record it, one command per line in labx2. Preface each command with a tag to indicate the step. The tag should be the step number in parenthesis. Each command should fit on one line and not contain any semicolons. Your labx2 file should have exactly 30 lines and look like the following:

(1) your command goes here


You may find it helpful to have three Opus3 sessions running. In the first session display the output from the tree command on the dogs directory for quick reference. In a second session, use vi to record your commands in the labx2 file, and in the third session test the commands you create.

## Review¶

• A way is needed to uniquely specify files and directories in the UNIX/Linux file tree. Because there can be more than one file with the same name just specifying the filename on a command would be ambiguous. Absolute and relative pathnames solve this need.

• The top or “root” of the file tree is the / directory. By typing ls / you can view the standard top level directories of the UNIX/Linux file tree.

• An absolute pathname specifies the location of a file or directory relative to the top of the Unix file tree. An absolute pathname specifies the complete path starting from / (the top or “root” of the file tree) all the way to the file or directory being specified. Absolute pathnames always start with a / and contain no spaces.

• A relative pathname specifies the location of a file or directory relative to the current working directory. The current working directory changes every time you change directories using the cd command. A relative pathname specifies the complete path starting from the current working directory all the way to the file or directory being specified. Relative pathnames never start with a / and contain no spaces.

• The pwd command will show you where you are in the UNIX/Linux file tree by displaying the current working directory. The current working directory is the starting point for all relative pathnames.

• Tip: To verify if a pathname is correct, use it as an argument to the ls command. If you are specifying a file the ls command will print the name of the target file only if the pathname is correct. Same goes for directories however, the -d option must be used so the ls command will display the name of the target directory rather than its contents.

• Correct pathnames are required as arguments to commands that work with files such as mv, cp, ls, cd, head, tail, rm, etc.

• The . directory means “here”. It is hard linked to the current directory you are in. You may use . below when asked for a relative path.

• The .. directory is the parent of the current directory. It is implemented as a hard link. You may use .. when asked for a relative pathname below. Use it to work your way up the tree towards the top or “root” of the tree.

• The ~ directory is shorthand for the user’s home directory. Don’t use it below when asked for an absolute path since it changes based on the user.

• Example: the absolute pathname to the sonnet1 file in Benji’s Shakespeare directory is:

/home/cis90/simben/poems/Shakespeare/sonnet1


Note that this is like giving someone walking instructions from the top of the tree all the way to the specific sonnet1 file in Benji’s Shakespeare directory.

• Example: two relative pathnames to the sonnet1 file in Benji’s Shakespeare directory from /home/mmatera are:

../cis90/simben/poems/Shakespeare/sonnet1
../../boot/grub/../../home/cis90/simben/poems/Shakespeare/sonnet1


Note that this is like giving someone walking instructions from their current location on the tree all the way to the specific sonnet1 file in Benji’s directory. Note: it doesn’t have to be the shortest path just a complete path.

• Example: the relative pathname to the sonnet1 file in Benji’s Shakespeare directory from his Shakespeare directory is:

sonnet1

• Use Tab completes to verify the pathname you are typing is correct. Press the Tab key once to see if enough characters have been typed to complete the current file name. Press the Tab key twice to show all the current possibilities. If there is no completion or possibilities you are most likely off in the weeds and not typing a correct pathname.

## Using absolute and relative pathnames¶

1. From your home directory, what ls command would show the permissions on the Linux kernel file vmlinuz-* On Opus, this file resides in the /boot directory. On your ls command, specify the Linux kernel using an absolute pathname.

2. From your home directory, what ls command would show the permissions on the passwd file where all user accounts are kept? This passwd file resides in the /etc directory. On your ls command, specify this passwd file using an absolute pathname.

3. From your home directory, what ls command would show the permissions on the /etc directory itself (and no other directories)? On your ls command, specify this particular etc directory using an absolute pathname and be sure to use the -d option.

4. From your home directory, what cd command would change to the top, “root”, directory of the UNIX/Linux file tree? On your cd command, use a relative pathname to specify the top directory of the file tree.

5. From the top of the file tree, what file command would probe the passwd file where all user accounts are kept? This passwd file resides in the /etc directory. On your file command, specify this passwd file using a relative pathname that does not start with the “.” character.

6. From the top of the file tree, what ls command would show the owners of all files in the /dev/pts/ directory? On your ls command, use a relative pathname and one filename expansion (globbing) character.

7. From the top of the file tree, what cd command would change to the new dogs directory in your home directory? Use an absolute pathname to specify your dogs directory.

8. From your dogs directory, what tree command diagrams the Italy and Germany directories? Specify both directories with relative pathnames.

9. Again from your dogs directory, what ls command does a long, recursive listing showing inode numbers of the Ukraine directory? Specify the Ukraine directory using an absolute pathname.

10. Still from your dogs directory, what head command would list the first 2 lines of the Austen’s Persuasion and Chekhov’s Wife files? Use relative pathnames for both Persuasion and Wife.

11. Again from your dogs directory, what head command would list the first 2 lines of Burroughs’ Tarzan and Mars files? Use an absolute pathname for the Tarzan file. Use a relative pathname for the Mars file that does not start with the “.” character.

12. From your dogs directory, what cd command would change to the Plato directory (in Greece)? Use a relative pathname to specify the Plato directory that does not start with the “.” character.

13. From the Plato directory, what chmod command would change the permissions on the Ukraine and USA directories to 744? Use a relative pathname with the wildcard * meta-character to specify just the USA and Ukraine directories. You must also use the -v option (for verbose) which outputs the changes made.

14. From the Plato directory, what ls command would do a long listing on the passwd file in the /etc directory? Use an absolute pathname for the passwd file.

15. From the Plato directory, what ls command would do a long listing on the passwd file in the /etc directory? Use a relative pathname for the passwd file.

16. From the Plato directory, what cd command would change to the France directory? Use an absolute pathname to specify the France directory.

17. From the France directory, what cp command would copy Machiavelli’s War to the France directory? Use relative pathnames to specify the Machiavelli’s War and the France directory. Use the -v option to show what gets copied.

18. From the France directory, what cp command would copy Kafka’s Trial to the Cervantes directory? Use relative pathnames to specify the Trial file and the Cervantes directory. Use the -v option to show what gets copied.

19. From the France directory, what cp command would copy Verne’s Moon and Tolstoy’s Murad to the Cervantes directory? Use a relative pathname to specify the Moon file that does not start with the “.” character. Use a relative pathname for the Cervantes directory. Use an absolute pathname to specify the Murad file. Use the -v option to show what gets copied.

20. From the France directory, what rm command would remove the four files copied in steps 17-19 from the France and Cervantes directories? That is, remove the War file from France and the Moon, Murad and Trial files from the Cervantes directory. Use only relative pathnames and the -v option to show what gets removed. Use the [] and * meta-characters to specify all the files in Cervantes you want to delete.

21. From the France directory, what cat command would cat the author file in the Verne directory? Use a relative pathname for the author file.

22. From the France directory, what cat command would cat the author file in the Verne directory? Use an absolute pathname for the author file.

23. From the France directory, what cat command would cat the author files in the USAAlcott, Burroughs, Dickinson and Twain directories? Use a relative pathname with the * wildcard meta-character.

24. From the France directory, what cd command with an argument would change back to your home directory? Specify your home directory using a relative pathname that starts with the .. directory.

25. From your home directory, what non-recursive grep command would find all lines containing the string “dog” in all the works by the Ukrainian author Chekhov? Use a relative pathname with the wildcard * meta-character to match each of his works.

26. From your home directory, what non-recursive grep command would find all lines containing the word dog in all the works of all the German authors? Use a relative pathname with the wildcard * meta-character to match both authors and works.

27. From your home directory, what cat command would print all the files named author in all the directories under the dogs directory? Use an absolute pathname with the wildcard * meta-character to match all country directories and author directories.

28. From your home directory, what find command would list all the directories (not regular files) in your dogs directory and down? Use a relative pathname to your dogs directory.

29. From your home directory, what cp command would copy /etc/passwd and Burroughs’ Oakdale file to your home directory? Use relative pathnames for your home directory and the Oakdale file. Use an absolute pathname for the passwd file. Use the -v option (verbose) to show what gets copied.

30. From your home directory, what rm command would remove the passwd and Oakdale files from your home directory? Use relative pathnames and the -v option (verbose) to show what gets removed that do not start with the “.” character.

## To turn in¶

Submit your final version of labx2 as follows:

$cp labx2 /home/mmatera/turnin/labx2.$LOGNAME